Kiusaamiseen ja vertaissuhteisiin liittyviä julkaisuja


Ahtola: A. (2012) Proactive and preventive student welfare activities in Finnish preschool and elementary school : handling of transition to formal schooling and a national anti-bullying program as examples. Turku: University of Turku.                      

Garandeau, C. (2014) School bullies’ quest for power : implications for group dynamics and intervention. Turku: University of Turku.

Haataja, A. (2016) Implementing the KiVa antibullying problem : what does it take? Turku: University of Turku.

Kärnä, A. (2012) Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program. Turku: University of Turku.

Pöyhönen, V. (2013) Defending behavior in bullying situations. Turku: University of Turku.

Roos, S. (2014) Guilt, shame, emotion regulation, and social cognition: understanding their associations with preadolescents’ social behavior. Turku: University of Turku 

Saarento, S. (2015) Conceptualizing and counteracting the bullying dynamic : classroom and school contexts matter. Turku: University of Turku. 

Sainio, M. (2013) Same- and other-sex victimization : risk factors, consequences, and protection by peers. Turku: University of Turku.

Yang, A. (2015) Bully-victims : prevalence, psychosocial adjustment, and responsiveness to intervention. Turku: University of Turku.


Tutkimuksia KiVa Koulu -ohjelman vaikuttavuudesta ja toteutuksesta Suomessa

Sainio, Miia (2014). KiVa Koulu -ohjelma suomalaisissa peruskouluissa: Miten ohjelmaa toteutetaan tai miksi sitä ei käytetä? Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön rahoittama selvitys.

Ahtola, A., Haataja, A., Kärnä, A., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). For children only? Effects of the KiVa antibullying program on teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 851–859.

Ahtola, A., Haataja, A., Kärnä, A., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Implementation of anti-bullying lessons in primary classrooms: how important is head teacher support? Educational Research, 55(4), 376–392.

Garandeau, C. F., Lee, I. A., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). Differential effects of the KiVa anti-bullying program on popular and unpopular bullies. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 44–50.

Garandeau, C. F., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). Tackling acute cases of school bullying in the KiVa anti-bullying program: A comparison of two approaches. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(6), 981–991.

Garandeau, C. F., Vartio, A., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2016). School bullies’ intention to change behavior following teacher interventions: Effects of empathy arousal, condemning of bullying, and blaming of the perpetrator. Prevention Science, 17(8), 1034–1043.

Haataja, A., Voeten, M., Boulton, A. J., Ahtola, A., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). The KiVa antibullying curriculum and outcome: Does fidelity matter? Journal of School Psychology, 52(5), 479–493.

Haataja, A., Ahtola, A., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). A process view on implementing an antibullying curriculum: How teachers differ and what explains the variation. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(4), 564–576.

Herkama, S.,  Kontio, M., Sainio, M., Turunen, T., Poskiparta, E. & Salmivalli C. (2022). Facilitators and Barriers to the Sustainability of a School-Based Bullying Prevention Program. Prevention Science.

Juvonen, J., Schacter, H. L., Sainio, M., & Salmivalli, C. (2016). Can a school-wide bullying prevention program improve the plight of victims? Evidence for risk × intervention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(4), 334–344.

Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T. D., Alanen, E., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 1–3 and 7–9. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 535–551.

Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T. D., Poskiparta, E., Alanen, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Going to scale: A nonrandomized nationwide trial of the KiVa antibullying program for grades 1–9. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6), 796–805.

Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T. D., Poskiparta, E., Kaljonen, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). A Large-Scale Evaluation of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 4-6. Child Development, 82(1), 311–330.

Poskiparta, E., Kaukiainen, A., Pöyhönen, V., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Anti-bullying computer game as part of the KiVa-program: Children’s perceptions of the game. In A. Costabile & B. Spears (Eds.), The impact of technology on relationships in educational settings: International perspectives (pp. 158–168). New York, NY: Routledge.

Salmivalli, C., Garandeau, C. F., & Veenstra, R. (2012). KiVa anti-bullying program: Implications for school adjustment. In A. M. Ryan & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships and adjustment at School. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Pub.

Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2011). Counteracting bullying in Finland: The KiVa program and its effects on different forms of being bullied. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(5), 405–411.

Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2010b). From peer putdowns to peer support: A theoretical model and how it translated into a national anti-bullying program. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 441–454). New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Huitsing, G., Sainio, M., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). The role of teachers in bullying: The relation between antibullying attitudes, efficacy, and efforts to reduce bullying. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(4), 1135–1143.

Williford, A., Boulton, A., Noland, B., Little, T. D., Kärnä, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Effects of the KiVa Anti-bullying Program on Adolescents’ Depression, Anxiety, and Perception of Peers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(2), 289–300.

Williford, A., Elledge, L. C., Boulton, A. J., DePaolis, K. J., Little, T. D., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Effects of the KiVa Antibullying Program on Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization Frequency Among Finnish Youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(6), 820–833.


Muita tutkimuksia suomalaisesta KiVa Koulu -aineistosta (teemoittain)


Christian Elledge, L., Williford, A., Boulton, A., DePaolis, K., Little, T., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Individual and Contextual Predictors of Cyberbullying: The Influence of Children’s Provictim Attitudes and Teachers’ Ability to Intervene. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 42(5), 698–710.

Salmivalli, C., Sainio, M., & Hodges, E. V. E. (2013). Electronic victimization: Correlates, antecedents, and consequences among elementary and middle school students. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(4), 442–453.


Luokka- ja koulutason tekijät sekä sosiaaliset verkostot ja kiusaaminen

Garandeau, C., Lee, I., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). Inequality Matters: Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents’ Bullying. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 43(7), 1123–1133.

Huitsing, G., van Duijn, M. A. J., Snijders, T. A. B., Wang, P., Sainio, M., Salmivalli, C., & Veenstra, R. (2012). Univariate and multivariate models of positive and negative networks: Liking, disliking, and bully–victim relationships. Social Networks, 34(4), 645–657.

Huitsing, G., Veenstra, R., Sainio, M., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). “It must be me” or “It could be them?”: The impact of the social network position of bullies and victims on victims’ adjustment. Social Networks, 34(4), 379–386.

Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2010). Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts: Bystanders’ Behaviors Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56(3), 261–282.

Peets, K., Pöyhönen, V., Juvonen, J., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). Classroom norms of bullying alter the degree to which children defend in response to their affective empathy and power. Developmental Psychology, 51(7), 913–920.

Saarento, S., Boulton, A. J., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). Reducing bullying and victimization: Student- and classroom-level mechanisms of change. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(1), 61–76.

Saarento, S., Kärnä, A., Hodges, E. V. E., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization. Journal of School Psychology, 51(3), 421–434.

Salmivalli, C., Voeten, M., & Poskiparta, E. (2011). Bystanders Matter: Associations between reinforcing, defending, and the frequency of bullying behavior in Ccassrooms. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 668–676.

Sentse, M., Kiuru, N., Veenstra, R., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). A Social Network Approach to the Interplay Between Adolescents’ Bullying and Likeability over Time. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 43(9), 1409–1420.

Sentse, M., Kretschmer, T., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). The longitudinal interplay between bullying, victimization, and social status: Age-related and gender differences. Social Development, 24(3), 659–677.

Sentse, M., Veenstra, R., Kiuru, N., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). A longitudinal multilevel study of individual characteristics and classroom norms in explaining bullying behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(5), 943–955.



Yang, A., Li, X., & Salmivalli, C. (2016). Maladjustment of bully-victims: validation with three identification methods. Educational Psychology, 36(8), 1390–1407.

Yang, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Different forms of bullying and victimization: Bully-victims versus bullies and victims. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10(6), 723–738.


Kiusatun puolustaminen

Pöyhönen, V., Juvonen, J., & Salmivalli, C. (2010). What Does It Take to Stand Up for the Victim of Bullying?: The Interplay Between Personal and Social Factors. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56(2), 143–163.

Pöyhönen, V., Juvonen, J., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Standing Up for the Victim, Siding with the Bully or Standing by? Bystander Responses in Bullying Situations. Social Development, 21(4), 722–741.

Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Victims and their defenders: A dyadic approach. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(2), 144–151.


Sukupuoli ja kiusaaminen

Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Same- and other-sex victimization: Are the risk factors similar? Aggressive Behavior, 38(6), 442–455.

Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Little, T. D., Kärnä, A., Rönkkö, M., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Being bullied by same- versus other-sex peers: Does it matter for adolescent victims? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(4), 454–466.

Maahanmuuttajat ja kiusaaminen

Strohmeier, D., Kärnä, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Intrapersonal and interpersonal risk factors for peer victimization in immigrant youth in Finland. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 248–258.


Kokooma-artikkeleita ja katsauksia KiVa Koulu -ohjelmaan liittyen

Caravita, S. C. S., Pöyhönen, V., & Salmivalli, C. (2009). Prosocial involvement in antisocial situations: Defending the victims of bullying. In T. A. Kinney & M. Pörhölä (Eds.), Anti- and pro-social communication: Theories, methods, and applications (pp. 173–182). New York: Peter Lang.

Saarento, S., Garandeau, C. F., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). Classroom- and school-level contributions to bullying and victimization: A review. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 25(3), 204–218.

Saarento, S., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). The role of classroom peer ecology and bystanders’ responses in bullying. Child Development Perspectives, 9(4), 201–205.

Sainio, M., Salmivalli, C., & Toda, Y. (2013). キヴァ [ KiVa Program]. In K. Yamasaki, Y. Toda, & Y. Watanabe (Eds.), 世界の学校予防教育 [Prevention education at schools in the world] (pp. 168–181). Tokyo: 金子書房 [ Kanekoshobo].

Salmivalli, C. (2009). Bullying is a group phenomenon − what does It mean and why does It matter? In S. Hymel, S. M. Swearer, & P. Gillette (Eds.), Bullying at School and Online, a special invited issue of Retrieved from

Salmivalli, C. (2010). Bullying and the peer group: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(2), 112–120.

Salmivalli, C. (2014a). KiVa – against bullying. Psychologist, 27(4), 52–53.

Salmivalli, C. (2014b). Participant Roles in Bullying: How Can Peer Bystanders Be Utilized in Interventions? Theory Into Practice, 53(4), 286–292.

Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2010). KiVa – A Finnish innovation to tackle bullying in schools. In K. Österman (Ed.), Direct and Indirect Aggression (pp. 171–183). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2010). Development, evaluation, and diffusion of KiVa, a national anti-bullying program. In B. Doll, Handbook of youth prevention science. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Salmivalli, C., & Peets, K. (2009). Bullies, victims, and bully-victim relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 322–340). New York, NY: Guilford.

Salmivalli, C., & Peets, K. (2010). Violencia entre iguales: un fenómeno grupal [Peer-to-peer bullying at school: considering the contexts in which it occurs]. In R. Ortega (Ed.), Agresividad injustificada y violencia escolar [Injustified Aggressiveness and School Violence]. Alianza publications.

Salmivalli, C., Peets, K., & Hodges, E. V. E. (2010). Bullying. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development (pp. 510–528). Wiley-Blackwell.

Salmivalli, C., & Poskiparta, E. (2011). KiVa Anti-Mobbing Programm. In Huber, A.A. (Hrsg.). Anti-Mobbing-Strategien für die Schule. Praxisratgeber zur erfolgreichen und nachhaltigen Intervention. [Anti-Mobbing-Strategies for school. Practice guidebook for successful and lasting interventions]. Neuwied: Carl Link.Wolters.KluwerVerlag.

Salmivalli, C., & Poskiparta, E. (2012). KiVa antibullying program: Overview of evaluation studies based on a randomized controlled trial and national rollout in Finland. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6(2), 294 – 302.

Salmivalli, C., Poskiparta, E., Ahtola, A., & Haataja, A. (2013). The implementation and effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program in Finland. European Psychologist, 18(2), 79–88.

Salmivalli, C., & Pöyhönen, V. (2012). Cyberbullying in Finland. In Q. L. MSc, D. Cross, & P. K. S. BSc (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the Global Playground (pp. 57–72). Wiley-Blackwell.

Smith, P., Salmivalli, C., & Cowie, H. (2012). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a commentary. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8(4), 433–441.

Spiel, C., Salmivalli, C., & Smith, P. K. (2011). Translational research: National strategies for violence prevention in school. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(5), 381–382.